Urinary tract stones, Bladder calculi
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Bladder stones are hard buildups
of mineral that form in the urinary bladder.
Bladder stones are usually the result of another urologic problem such
as urinary tract
infection, bladder diverticulum, neurogenic
bladder, or an enlarged
prostate. Approximately 95% of all bladder stones occur in men. Stones
originating in the bladder are much less common than kidney
Bladder stones may occur when urine in the bladder is
concentrated and materials crystallize. The patient feels symptoms when the
lining of the bladder is irritated by the stone or when the stone obstructs the
flow of urine from the bladder.
urge to urinate
- Interruption of the urine stream
- Inability to urinate except in certain positions
in the urine
discomfort in the penis
colored or dark-colored urine
- Urinary tract infection
- Urinary urgency
may also be associated with bladder stones.
Drinking 6 to 8 glasses of water or more per day, enough to increase urinary
output, may help the stones pass.
Stones that are not excreted
spontaneously may be removed by your health care provider using a cystoscope or
a lithotripter (a small tube that passes through the urethra to the bladder).
Some stones may need to be removed using open surgery.
shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) may be an alternative to surgery. In this
treatment, ultrasonic waves break up stones so that they may be expelled in the
Medications are rarely used to try to dissolve the
Underlying causes of bladder stones should be treated. Most
commonly bladder stones are seen in conjunction with benign
prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or bladder outlet
For patients with BPH and bladder stones, transurethral resection of the
prostate (TURP) can be performed with ESWL.
Most bladder stones are expelled or can be removed without permanent damage
to the bladder. They may recur if the underlying cause is not corrected.
If the stones are left untreated they may cause permanent damage to the
bladder or kidneys.
Call your health care provider if
symptoms indicate that you may have bladder stones.
- Recurrence of stones
- Urinary tract infection, chronic or recurrent
- Obstruction of the urethra
bilateral obstructive uropathy
- Chronic bladder dysfunction (incontinence or urinary retention)
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Prompt treatment of urinary tract infections or other urologic conditions may
help prevent bladder stones.